Duck with a Side of Energy Storage: Why batteries pair perfectly with high-penetration solar

In 2013, the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) first published the iconic “Duck Curve“, forecasting what would happen to the shape of hourly net electricity demand under high solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration scenarios. Since this initial publication, the situation in California has unfolded in remarkably similar fashion to what was forecasted. Mid-day solar generation has dramatically reduced the net electricity …